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How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper
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To ask other readers questions about Writing Research Papers , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Writing Research Papers. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Lester One of the more helpful books in writing my thesis!
Keep it handy! Not a book I have actually read cover to cover, but it is in my library for referencing when needed.
I own the fourteenth edition, copyrighted in Mark it! Highlight it! Tag all the sections pertinent to your writing!
Easy to understand and easy to find the help you are looking for. Fair, but nothing spectacular. Used the 13th edition. ETA: And now I'm using the 14th edition. I'm still trying to see what on earth they've changed that required a new edition. Also, one of the James D. Lesters credited above should have a Jr. ETA2: I'm now up through chapter 12 in an 18 chapter book, and all the changes thus far have been cosmetic: changing fonts, choosing different colors for headings, the occasional slightly rephrased sentence. I am Meh. I am growing highly suspicious. Well, I have now finished. And there was absolutely no reason why they needed to update over the previous edition with this.
It's essentially identical except for a few changes that mess enough with page numbers so they no longer match. Understanding cohesion can also benefit you in the workplace, especially when you have to write and deliver a presentation. If you choose to use these elements, make sure they work well with the substantive content of your presentation. For example, if you are asked to give a financial presentation, and the financial report shows that the company lost money, funny illustrations would not be relevant or appropriate for the presentation.
Reading your writing aloud will often help you find problems with unity and coherence. Listen for the clarity and flow of your ideas. Identify places where you find yourself confused, and write a note to yourself about possible fixes. Sometimes writers get caught up in the moment and cannot resist a good digression.
Even though you might enjoy such detours when you chat with friends, unplanned digressions usually harm a piece of writing. Following your outline closely offers you a reasonable guarantee that your writing will stay on purpose and not drift away from the controlling idea. However, when writers are rushed, are tired, or cannot find the right words, their writing may become less than they want it to be.
Their writing may no longer be clear and concise, and they may add information that is not needed to develop the main idea. The wording clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph. When she revised her essay, she deleted the off-topic sentences that affected the unity of the paragraph.
Did she cut too much, too little, or just enough? Is the explanation of what screen resolution means a digression? Or is it audience friendly and essential to understanding the paragraph? Collaboration: P lease share with a classmate and compare your answers. Now, print out another copy of your essay or use the printed version s you used in Self — Practice Exercises Reread it to find any statements that affect the unity of your writing. Decide how best to revise. When you reread your writing to find revisions to make, look for each type of problem in a separate sweep.
Read it straight through once to locate any problems with unity. Read it straight through a second time to find problems with coherence. You may follow this same practice during many stages of the writing process. Many companies hire copy editors and proofreaders to help them produce the cleanest possible final drafts of large writing projects.
Copy editors are responsible for suggesting revisions and style changes; proofreaders check documents for any errors in capitalization, spelling, and punctuation that have crept in. Many times, these tasks are done on a freelance basis, with one freelancer working for a variety of clients. Together, your style and tone create the voice of your paper, or how you come across to readers.
Style refers to the way you use language as a writer—the sentence structures you use and the word choices you make. Tone is the attitude toward your subject and audience that you convey through your word choice. Although accepted writing styles will vary within different disciplines, the underlying goal is the same—to come across to your readers as a knowledgeable, authoritative guide.
Writing about research is like being a tour guide who walks readers through a topic. A stuffy, overly formal tour guide can make readers feel put off or intimidated. Too much informality or humour can make readers wonder whether the tour guide really knows what he or she is talking about. Extreme or emotionally charged language comes across as unbalanced.
To help prevent being overly formal or informal, determine an appropriate style and tone at the beginning of the research process. Consider your topic and audience because these can help dictate style and tone. A strong research paper comes across as straightforward, appropriately academic, and serious. It is generally best to avoid writing in the first person, as this can make your paper seem overly subjective and opinion based. You can check for consistency at the end of the writing process.
Checking for consistency is discussed later in this section. Note that word choice is an especially important aspect of style. In addition to checking the points noted on Checklist Here are some of the points to check for:. Using plural nouns and pronouns or recasting a sentence can help you keep your language gender neutral while avoiding awkwardness. Consider the following examples. As you revise your paper, make sure your style is consistent throughout. Look for instances where a word, phrase, or sentence does not seem to fit with the rest of the writing. It is best to reread for style after you have completed the other revisions so that you are not distracted by any larger content issues.
Revising strategies you can use include the following:. Read your paper aloud. Sometimes your ears catch inconsistencies that your eyes miss. Share your paper with another reader whom you trust to give you honest feedback. Another reader may be more likely to notice instances of wordiness, confusing language, or other issues that affect style and tone. E dit your paper slowly, sentence by sentence. You may even wish to use a sheet of paper to cover up everything on the page except the paragraph you are editing. This practice forces you to read slowly and carefully.
Mark any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections. On reviewing his paper, Jorge found that he had generally used an appropriately academic style and tone. However, he noticed one glaring exception—his first paragraph.
He realized there were places where his overly informal writing could come across as unserious or, worse, disparaging. Revising his word choice and omitting a humorous aside helped Jorge maintain a consistent tone. Read his revisions. Using Checklist You may use either of these techniques :. Read it line by line. Check for the issues noted on Checklist If you prefer to work with an electronic document, use the menu options in your word processing program to enlarge the text to or percent of the original size. Make sure the type is large enough that you can focus on one paragraph at a time.
Read the paper line by line as described in step 1. Highlight any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections. On a separate piece of paper, note places where the essay does not seem to flow or you have questions about what was written. Return the essay and compare notes. After working so closely with a piece of writing, writers often need to step back and ask for a more objective reader.
What writers need most is feedback from readers who can respond only to the words on the page. When they are ready, writers show their drafts to someone they respect and who can give an honest response about its strengths and weaknesses. You, too, can ask a peer to read your draft when it is ready. Although you may be uncomfortable sharing your writing at first, remember that each writer is working toward the same goal: a final draft that fits the audience and the purpose.
Maintaining a positive attitude when providing feedback will put you and your partner at ease. The box that follows provides a useful framework for the peer review session. One of the reasons why word processing programs build in a reviewing feature is that work groups have become a common feature in many businesses. Remember to give positive feedback and to be courteous and polite in your responses. Focus on providing one positive comment and one question for more information to the author. The purpose of peer feedback is to receive constructive criticism of your essay.
Your peer reviewer is your first real audience, and you have the opportunity to learn what confuses and delights a reader so that you can improve your work before sharing the final draft with a wider audience or your intended audience. It may not be necessary to incorporate every recommendation your peer reviewer makes. However, if you start to observe a pattern in the responses you receive from peer reviewers, you might want to consider that feedback in future assignments.
For example, if you read consistent comments about a need for more research, then you may want to consider including more research in future assignments. You might get feedback from more than one reader as you share different stages of your revised draft. In this situation, you may receive feedback from readers who do not understand the assignment or who lack your involvement with and enthusiasm for it.
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Consider the feedback you received from the peer review and all of the revision exercises throughout this section. Compile a final draft of your revisions that you can use in the next section to complete your final edits. Given all the time and effort you have put into your research paper, you will want to make sure that your final draft represents your best work.
This requires taking the time to revise and edit your paper carefully. You may feel like you need a break from your paper before you edit it. That feeling is understandable, so you want to be sure to leave yourself enough time to complete this important stage of the writing process. This section presents a number of opportunities for you to focus on different aspects of the editing process; as with revising a draft, you should approach editing in different stages.
Some of the content in this section may seem repetitive, but again, it provides you with a chance to double-check any revisions you have made at a detailed level. If you have been incorporating each set of revisions as Mariah and Jorge have, you have produced multiple drafts of your writing. So far, all your changes have been content changes. Perhaps with the help of peer feedback, you have made sure that you sufficiently supported your ideas. You have checked for problems with unity and coherence. You have examined your essay for word choice, revising to cut unnecessary words and to replace weak wording with specific and appropriate wording.
The next step after revising the content is editing. When you edit, you examine the surface features of your text. You examine your spelling, grammar, usage, and punctuation. You also make sure you use the proper format when creating your finished assignment. Editing takes time. Be sure to budget time into the writing process to complete additional edits after revising. Editing and proofreading your writing helps you create a finished work that represents your best efforts.
Here are a few more tips to remember about your readers:. Readers look past your sentences to get to your ideas—unless the sentences are awkward, poorly constructed, and frustrating to read. Readers will notice the care with which you handled your assignment and your attention to detail in the delivery of an error-free document. Some writers are very methodical and painstaking when they write a first draft. Other writers unleash a lot of words in order to get out all that they feel they need to say. Do either of these methods match your style?
Or is your composing style somewhere in between? No matter which description best fits you, the first draft of almost every piece of writing, no matter its author, can be made clearer and more concise.
How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style - A Research Guide for Students
If you have a tendency to write too much, you will need to look for unnecessary words. If you have a tendency to be vague or imprecise in your wording, you will need to find specific words to replace any overly general language. Sometimes writers use too many words when fewer words will appeal more to their audience and better fit their purpose.
Here are some common examples of wordiness to look for in your draft. Eliminating wordiness helps all readers, because it makes your ideas clear, direct, and straightforward. Sentences with deadwood phrases that add little to the meaning. You can usually find a more straightforward way to state your point. Sentences are clearer when the subject performs the action and is followed by a strong verb.
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Avoid passive voice when you can. Most essays at the post-secondary level should be written in formal English suitable for an academic situation. Follow these principles to be sure that your word choice is appropriate. Avoid slang.
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Avoid language that is overly casual. A formal tone calls for formal language.